*Briefs of amici curiae urging reversal were filed for the State of Texas et al. Let us take a closer look at the two standards. 951 F. 2d, at 1130-1131. Pp. breakthroughs is simply a consequence of the fact that the Rules are The District Court granted respondent summary judgment based on a well-credentialed expert's affidavit concluding, upon reviewing the extensive published scientific literature on the subject, that maternal use of Bendectin has not been shown to be a risk factor for human birth defects. Pp.595-597. granted respondent summary judgment based on a well credentialed Frye, of course, predated the Rules by half a century. It is true that open debate is an essential part of both legal and scientific analyses. Argued March 30, 1993-Decided June 28,1993 is the appropriate means by which evidence based on valid principles denied, 439 U. S. 1117 (1979), with Christophersen v. Allied-Signal Corp., 939 F.2d 1106, 1111, 1115-1116 (CA5 1991) (en banc) (Frye and the Rules coexist), cert. denied, 494 U. S. 1046 (1990); Green 680-681. as Amici Curiae 9 ("Indeed, scientists do not assert that they know what is immutably 'true' -they are committed to searching for new, temporary, theories to explain, as best they can, phenomena"); Brief for American Association for the Advancement of Science et al. We noted that the Rules occupy the field, id., at 49, but, quoting Professor Cleary, the Reporter. Throughout, the judge should also be mindful of other See also Weinstein, Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence is, Sound; It Should Not Be Amended, 138 F. R. D. 631 (1991) ("The Rules were designed to depend primarily upon lawyer-adversaries and sensible triers of fact to evaluate conflicts"). Ante, at 593. Throughout, the judge should also be mindful of other applicable Rules. In making its determination it is not bound by the rules of evidence except those with respect to privileges." "Fit" is not always obvious, and scientific validity for one purpose is not necessarily scientific validity for other, unrelated purposes. These matters should be established by a preponderance of proof. Rule 703 provides that expert opinions based on otherwise inadmissible hearsay are to be admitted only if the facts or data are "of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field in forming opinions or inferences upon the subject." The District Court Thus, the animal-cell studies, live-animal studies, and chemical-structure analyses on which petitioners had relied could not raise by themselves a reasonably disputable jury issue regarding causation. B. Cardozo, The Nature of the Judicial Process 178-179 (1921). Cf., e. g., Advisory Committee's Notes on Fed. Proposed testimony must be supported by appropriate validation-i. Given the vast body of epidemiological data concerning Bendectin, the court held, expert opinion which is not based on epidemiological evidence. The second question presented in the petition for certiorari necessarily is mooted by this holding, but the Court nonetheless proceeds to construe Rules 702 and 703 very much in the abstract, and then offers some "general observations." Indeed, in footnote 9, the Court decides that "[i]n a case involving scientific evidence, eviden-. Faced with a proffer of expert scientific testimony, then, the trial judge must determine at the outset, pursuant to Rule 104(a),10 whether the expert is proposing to testify to (1) scientific knowledge that (2) will assist the trier of fact to understand or determine a fact in issue.ll This entails a preliminary assessment of whether the reasoning or method-. denied, 484 U. S. 817 (1987), with DeLuca v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 911 F.2d 941, 955 (CA3 1990) (rejecting the "general acceptance" standard). 598 DAUBERT v. MERRELL DOW PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. cordingly, the judgment of the Court of Appeals is vacated, and the case is remanded for further proceedings consistent with this opinion. Justia Annotations is a forum for attorneys to summarize, comment on, and analyze case law published on our site. The petition for certiorari in this case presents two questions: first, whether the rule of Frye v. United States, 54 App. Compare, e. g., United States v. Williams, 583 F.2d 1194 (CA2 1978) (Frye is superseded by the Rules of Evidence), cert. The court stated that scientific evidence is admissible only if the principle upon which it is based is "'sufficiently established to have general acceptance in the field to which it belongs.'" In this case we are called upon to determine the standard for admitting expert scientific testimony in a federal trial. The court declared that expert opinion based on a methodology that diverges "significantly from the procedures accepted by recognized authorities in the field ... cannot be shown to be 'generally accepted as a reliable technique.'" App., p. 755 (citation omitted)-is premised on an assumption that the expert's opinion will have a reliable basis in the knowledge and experience of his discipline. Proc. 1 Doctor Lamm received his master's and doctor of medicine degrees from the University of Southern California. 595 (1988); Imwinkelried, The "Bases" of Expert Testimony: The Syllogistic Structure of Scientific Testimony, 67 N. C. L. Rev. Proposed testimony, we are told, must be supported by "appropriate validation." In United States v. Abel, 469 U. S. 45 (1984), we considered the pertinence of background common law in interpreting the Rules of Evidence. Synopsis of Rule of Law. DAUBERT ET UX., INDIVIDUALLY AND AS GUARDIANS AD LITEM FOR DAUBERT, ET AL. 827 (1989). by Carter G. Phillips, Mark D. Hopson, and Jack R. Bierig; for the American Tort Reform Association by John G. Kester and John W Vardaman, Jr.; for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States by Timothy B. Dyk, Stephen A. Bokat, and Robin S. Conrad; for the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association by Louis R. Cohen and Daniel Marcus; for the Product Liability Advisory Council, Inc., et al. Evidence which is not relevant is not admissible. The Court speaks of its confidence that federal judges can make a "preliminary assessment of whether the reasoning or methodology underlying the testimony is scientifically valid and of whether that reasoning or methodology properly can be applied to the facts in issue." aid to their application, id., at 51-52, respondent's assertion that "General observations" by this Court customarily carry great weight with lower federal courts, but the ones offered here suffer from the flaw common to most such observations-they are not applied to deciding whether particular testimony was or was not admissible, and therefore they tend to be not only general, but vague and abstract. Rehnquist, C. J., filed an Beech Aircraft Corp. v. Rainey, 488 U. S., at 169 (citing Rules 701 to 705). We interpret the legislatively enacted Federal Rules of Evidence as we would any statute. applied to the facts at issue. But some general observations are appropriate. 254, 264 (1984). 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